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This study employs microsimulation techniques to provide an accounting of exposure to imprisoned or formerly imprisoned kin. We characterize the risk and prevalence of imprisonment within full kinship networks and find that the life course trajectories of familial imprisonment experienced by black and white Americans take on qualitatively distinct forms: the average black American born at the height of the prison boom experienced the imprisonment of a relative for the first time at age 7 and by age 65 belongs to a family in which more than 1 in 7 working-age relatives have ever been imprisoned. By contrast, the average white American who experiences the imprisonment of a relative does not do so until age 39 and by age 65 belongs to a family in which 1 in 20 working-age relatives have ever been imprisoned. Future reductions in imprisonment rates have the potential to meaningfully reduce these racial disparities in family imprisonment burden.

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This study employs microsimulation techniques to provide an accounting of exposure to imprisoned or formerly imprisoned kin. We characterize the risk and prevalence of imprisonment within full kinship networks and find that the life course trajectories of familial imprisonment experienced by black and white Americans take on qualitatively distinct forms: the average black American born at the height of the prison boom experienced the imprisonment of a relative for the first time at age 7 and by age 65 belongs to a family in which more than 1 in 7 working-age relatives have ever been imprisoned. By contrast, the average white American who experiences the imprisonment of a relative does not do so until age 39 and by age 65 belongs to a family in which 1 in 20 working-age relatives have ever been imprisoned. Future reductions in imprisonment rates have the potential to meaningfully reduce these racial disparities in family imprisonment burden.
Pil H. Chung : Departments of Sociology and Demography, University of California, Berkeley E-mail: pchung@berkeley.edu

Peter Hepburn : Departments of Sociology and Demography, University of California, Berkeley E-mail: pshepburn@demog.berkeley.edu

Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge David Harding, Kristin Turney, Sandra Susan Smith, Daniel Schneider, Christopher Wildeman, Robert Pickett, and Elayne Oliphant for the invaluable advice and feedback they provided at various stages of this work.

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Ethan Fosse, Christopher Winship

The intrinsic estimator (IE) has become a widely used tool for the analysis of age–period–cohort (APC) data in sociology, demography, and other fields. However, it has been recently recognized that the IE is a subtype of a larger class of estimators based on the Moore–Penrose generalized inverse (MP estimators) and that different estimators can lead to radically divergent estimates of the true, unknown APC effects. To clarify the differences and similarities of MP estimators, we introduce a canonical form of the linear constraints imposed on the true temporal effects. Using this canonical form, we compare the IE to related MP estimators, examining the conditions under which they recover the true temporal effects, the impact of the size and sign of nonlinearities on the estimated linear effects, and their sensitivity to the number of age, period, and cohort categories. We show that two MP estimators, which we call the difference estimator (DE) and the orthogonal estimator (OE), impose constraints that are both less sensitive and easier to interpret than those of the IE. We conclude with practical guidelines for researchers interested in using MP estimators to estimate temporal effects.

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The intrinsic estimator (IE) has become a widely used tool for the analysis of age–period–cohort (APC) data in sociology, demography, and other fields. However, it has been recently recognized that the IE is a subtype of a larger class of estimators based on the Moore–Penrose generalized inverse (MP estimators) and that different estimators can lead to radically divergent estimates of the true, unknown APC effects. To clarify the differences and similarities of MP estimators, we introduce a canonical form of the linear constraints imposed on the true temporal effects. Using this canonical form, we compare the IE to related MP estimators, examining the conditions under which they recover the true temporal effects, the impact of the size and sign of nonlinearities on the estimated linear effects, and their sensitivity to the number of age, period, and cohort categories. We show that two MP estimators, which we call the difference estimator (DE) and the orthogonal estimator (OE), impose constraints that are both less sensitive and easier to interpret than those of the IE. We conclude with practical guidelines for researchers interested in using MP estimators to estimate temporal effects.
Ethan Fosse : Department of Sociology, Princeton University E-mail: efosse@princeton.edu

Christopher Winship : Department of Sociology, Harvard University E-mail: cwinship@wjh.harvard.edu

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Thomas Leopold, Jan Skopek, Florian Schulz

Return to footnote 40 referrer

Return to footnote 41 referrer

Economic family after-tax income decile group - The economic family income decile group provides a rough ranking of the economic situation of a person based on his or her relative position in the Canadian distribution of the adjusted after-tax income of economic families for all persons in private households.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the population in private households is sorted according to its adjusted after-tax family income and then divided into 10 equal groups each containing 10% of the population. The decile cut-points are the levels of adjusted after-tax family income that define the 10 groups.

Return to footnote 42 referrer

Low-income status - The income situation of the statistical unit in relation to a specific low-income line in a reference year. Statistical units with income that is below the low-income line are considered to be in low income.

The low-income concepts are not applied in the territories and in certain areas based on census subdivision type (such as Indian reserves). The existence of substantial in-kind transfers (such as subsidized housing and First Nations band housing) and sizeable barter economies or consumption from own production (such as product from hunting, farming or fishing) could make the interpretation of low-income statistics more difficult in these situations.

Low-income measure, after tax (LIM-AT) - The Low-income measure, after tax, refers to a fixed percentage (50%) of median-adjusted after-tax income of private households. The household after-tax income is adjusted by an equivalence scale to take economies of scale into account. This adjustment for different household sizes reflects the fact that a household's needs increase, but at a decreasing rate, as the number of members increases.

Using data from the 2016 Census of Population, the line applicable to a household is defined as half the Canadian median of the adjusted household after-tax income multiplied by the square root of household size. The median is determined based on all persons in private households where low-income concepts are applicable. Thresholds for specific household sizes are presented in Table 4.2 Low-income measures thresholds (LIM-AT and LIM-BT) for private households of Canada, 2015, Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016.

When the unadjusted after-tax income of household pertaining to a person falls below the threshold applicable to the person based on household size, the person is considered to be in low income according to LIM-AT. Since the LIM-AT threshold and household income are unique within each household, low-income status based on LIM-AT can also be reported for households.

Low-income cut-offs, after tax (LICO-AT) - The Low-income cut-offs, after tax refers to an income threshold, defined using 1992 expenditure data, below which economic families or persons not in economic families would likely have devoted a larger share of their after-tax income than average to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing. More specifically, the thresholds represented income levels at which these families or persons were expected to spend 20 percentage points or more of their after-tax income than average on food, shelter and clothing. These thresholds have been adjusted to current dollars using the all-items Consumer Price Index (CPI).

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Zoological Letters 2017 3 :22

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40851-017-0081-8

© The Author(s).2017

Received: 19December2016

Accepted: 11October2017

Published: 12December2017

Abstract

Background

Teleosts transiting from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) environments face an immediate osmotic stress from ion influxes and water loss, but some euryhaline species such as eels can maintain a stable plasma osmolality during early SW exposure. The time course changes in the gene expression, protein abundance, and localization of key ion transporters suggested that the reversal of the ion transport systems was gradual, and we investigate how eels utilize a Na-binding strategy to slow down the ion invasion and complement the transporter-mediated osmoregulation.

Results

Using an electron probe micro-analyzer, we localized bound Na in various eel tissues in response to SW transfer, suggesting that the Na-binding molecules were produced to sequester excess ionic Na to negate its osmotic potential, thus preventing acute cellular dehydration. Mucus cells were acutely activated in digestive tract, gill, and skin after SW transfer, producing Na-binding molecule-containing mucus layers that fence off high osmolality of SW. Using gel filtration HPLC, some molecules at 18 kDa were found to bind Na in the luminal secretion of esophagus and intestine, and higher binding was associated with SW transfer. Transcriptome and protein interaction results indicated that downregulation of Notch and β-catenin pathways, and dynamic changes in TGFβ pathways in intestine were involved during early SW transition, supporting the observed histological changes on epithelial desquamation and increased mucus production.

Conclusions

The timing for the activation of the Na-binding mechanism to alleviate the adverse osmotic gradient was temporally complementary to the subsequent remodeling of branchial ionocytes and transporting epithelia of the digestive tract. The strategy to manipulate the osmotic potential of Na by specific binding molecules is similar to the osmotically inactive Na described in human skin and muscle. The Na-binding molecules provide a buffer to tolerate the salinity changes, which is advantageous to the estuary and migrating fishes. Our data pave the way to identify this unknown class of molecules and open a new area of vertebrate osmoregulation research.

Sodium storage Osmoregulation Mucus Teleost Euryhaline Transcriptome

Studies on osmoregulation have focused on the transport of ions to drive water movement and it is generally accepted that ions in the extracellular fluid (ECF) are regulated at a relatively constant level to maintain plasma osmolality (ca. 300-350 mOsm) in most vertebrates. The gill, intestine, and kidney are the major osmoregulatory organs in teleosts and successful acclimation in both freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) environments depends on the composition of epithelial transporters and channels, and metabolic and structural adjustments in those tissues. Externally, the teleost gill possesses various types of ionocytes that absorb ions in FW and excrete ions in SW [ 1 , London Footwear Libbie Women’s Ballet Flats Black TRDrs4bBb
,
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]. Teleosts drink copiously in SW and the intestine absorbs the imbibed water by actively taking up monovalent ions (Na + /Cl ) and precipitating divalent ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , SO 4 2− ) [ 4 , ODEMA Womens Low Top Slip On Flat Leather Ballet Shoes Casual Slouch Walking Working Shoes White Y0z2RyUF3
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]. The kidneys perform glomerular filtration to excrete excess water by producing copious diluted urine in FW [ 7 , 8 ] while those in SW actively secrete divalent ions in the proximal tubules [ 9 , 10 , 11 ]. These mechanisms were mostly derived from studies using euryhaline species (e.g. eels, salmon, killifish, etc.) fully acclimated to either FW or SW, whereas knowledge during the early transition phase between salinities is limited.

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